• Management & Economics

    Factors influencing the online purchase satisfaction, frequency, and intention of non-timber forest products
    Jae Bong Chang, Seong-Hwan Song, Donguk Kim, Hogun Chong
    During the COVID-19 pandemic, the online agricultural and food products market has experienced substantial expansion. This study aims to examine the factors … + READ MORE
    During the COVID-19 pandemic, the online agricultural and food products market has experienced substantial expansion. This study aims to examine the factors influencing consumers’ online purchasing behavior, their satisfaction levels regarding price and quality, the frequency of online transactions, and their future purchasing intentions concerning key short-term non-timber forest products. The analysis is based on survey responses obtained from 1,000 consumers across the nation. Results reveal that while online purchasing of non-timber forest products may not be as active compared to other sectors, various consumer behavior characteristics such as online purchase experience, socio-economic variables, online purchase dependency, and information utilization significantly influence purchasing decisions. These findings shed light on the understanding of consumer behavior through online platforms, particularly in non-timber forest products where analytical attempts have been relatively scarce compared to other agricultural products. The insights derived from this analysis could serve as fundamental data for understanding online consumption patterns, especially in sectors where research on consumer behavior remains limited. To expand the consumption of short-shelf-life perishable goods, which relatively have lower online consumption compared to other fresh agricultural products, it is necessary to conduct analyses that identify the socio-economic characteristics and corresponding needs of consumers. Additionally, analyses should be conducted to explore the potential for developing and utilizing processed foods for online consumption. These analyses should be carried out in conjunction with an understanding the socio-economic characteristics identified in this study. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2024
  • Animal

    Exposure to ethylene thiourea degrades the sperm ability of mammals
    Adikari Arachchige Dilki Indrachapa Adikari, Malavi Arachchi Gamage Nayodya Dananjanee Malavi Arachchi Gamage, Wijesooriya Mudhiyanselage Nadeema Dissanayake, Jung Min Heo, Young-Joo Yi
    Mancozeb is a manganese and zinc-containing fungicide that belongs to the ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate group and produces ethylene thiourea (ETU) after biotransformation or … + READ MORE
    Mancozeb is a manganese and zinc-containing fungicide that belongs to the ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate group and produces ethylene thiourea (ETU) after biotransformation or environmental degradation, which has toxicological hazard owing to its known antithyroid properties. Although mancozeb leads to negative changes in fertility capacity, the effects of ETU are less known. Therefore, this study examined the alteration of fertilization competence in boar spermatozoa exposed to ETU. The sperm motility, motion kinematics, viability, acrosome integrity, chromatin stability, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of sperm subjected to various ETU concentrations (10, 50, 100, and 200 µM) were evaluated after two different incubation times (30 min and 2 hrs). In addition, the relative mRNA expression of the sperm functional proteins was analyzed after exposure to ETU. A dose-dependent motility reduction was observed in sperm exposed to ETU during both incubation periods compared to the controls. The motion kinematics were reduced significantly in sperm incubated with ETU. Higher percentages of viable sperm were observed in the controls, while such viability was decreased significantly in sperm with 10 - 200 µM ETU. The acrosome integrity was particularly damaged on sperm incubated with 10 - 200 µM ETU for 30 min. Higher intracellular ROS levels were produced in sperm exposed to 200 µM ETU. In addition, lower relative levels of AKAP3, AKAP4, ODF2, and ZPBP2 expression were observed in sperm exposed to ETU compared to the controls. Mancozeb and ETU could adversely affect the reproductive functions of mammals. Hence, the effects of ETU on the reproductive system should be examined further. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2024
  • Animal

    An evaluation of the effects of dietary copper sulphate level on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, organ weight, and excreta score in Ross308-Broilers
    Sumaya Tanzin Wahid, Sarbani Biswas, In Ho Kim
    Copper sulphate (CuSO4) level was analyzed in this study to determine the effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, organ weight, … + READ MORE
    Copper sulphate (CuSO4) level was analyzed in this study to determine the effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, organ weight, and excreta score in Ross308-broilers. A total of 1,134 mixed sex, 1-d old Ross-308 chicks were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups with 21 replication and 18 chicks / cage. For a period of 32 days, chicks were fed with the following treatment groups: CON: Basal diet, TRT1: 0.032% CuSO4, TRT2: 0.047% CuSO4 (Phase 1), 0.032% CuSO4 (Phase 2), 0.025% CuSO4 (Phase 3). The experiment was divided into three phases. Phase 1 (day 1 to 9), phase 2 (day 9 to 21), and phase 3 (day 21 to 32). During days 1 to 9, broilers receiving 0.032% or 0.047% of CuSO4 in TRT1 and TRT2, respectively, had significantly higher body weight gain (BWG) (p = 0.042) than CON. Likewise, comparing TRT1 and TRT2 to CON during days 10 to 21, 0.032% of CuSO4 significantly increased BWG (p = 0.013) and feed intake (FI), (p = 0.024) in the broiler. When compared to TRT1, the administration of 0.032% and 0.025% of CuSO4 during days 22 to 32 reduced BWG and FI in CON and TRT2, respectively among the treatment groups. Throughout the experiment, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) did not change. However, the nutrient digestibility, weight of organs, and the score of excreta remained unchanged. The study found that CuSO4 administration increased broiler BWG and FI without affecting FCR, nutrients digestibility, weight of organs, and excreta score. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2024
  • Engineering

    Evaluation of gear reduction ratio for a 1.6 kW multi-purpose agricultural electric vehicle platform based on the workload data
    Mohammod Ali, Md Rejaul Karim, Habineza Eliezel, Md Ashrafuzzaman Gulandaz, Md Razob Ali, Hyun-Seok Lee, Sun-Ok Chung, Soon Jung Hong
    Selection of gear reduction ratio is essential for machine design to ensure suitable power and speed during agricultural operations. The goal of … + READ MORE
    Selection of gear reduction ratio is essential for machine design to ensure suitable power and speed during agricultural operations. The goal of the study was to evaluate the gear reduction ratio for a 1.6 kW four-wheel-drive (4WD) multi-purpose agricultural electric vehicle platform using workload data under different off-road conditions. A data acquisition system was fabricated to collect workload (torque) of the vehicle acting on the gear shaft. Field tests were performed under three driving surfaces (asphalt, concrete, and grassland), payload operations (981, 2,942, and 4,903 N), and slope conditions (0 - 4°, 4 - 8°, and 8 - 12°), respectively. Commercial speed reduction gear phases were attached to the input shaft of the vehicle powertrain. The maximum required torque was recorded as 37.5 Nm at a 4,903 N load with 8 - 12° slope levels, and the minimum torque was 12.32 Nm at 0 - 4° slope levels with a 981 Nm load for a 4 km/h speed on asphalt, concrete, and grassland roads. Based on the operating load condition and motor torque and rotational speed (TN) curve, the minimum and maximum gear reduction ratios were chosen as 1 : 50 and 1 : 64, respectively. The selected motor satisfied power requirements by meeting all working torque criteria with the gear reduction ratios. The chosen motor with a gear reduction ratio of 1 : 50 was suitable to fit with the motor T-N curve, and produced the maximum speeds and loads needed for driving and off-road activities. The findings of the study would assist in choosing a suitable gear reduction ratio for electric vehicle multi-purpose field operations. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2024
  • Food & Chemistry

    Evaluation of liver function using Cordyceps militaris extract powder in Sprague-Dawley rat with acute hepatic injury induced by dimethylnitrosamine
    Heejin Park, Ju-Hye Kim, Mun-Hyoung Bae, Youngha Seo, Eun-Young Gu, Taek-Keun Oh, Byoung-Seok Lee
    Hepatic fibrosis refers to the scarring of liver tissue, often resulting from chronic liver injury or inflammation. It is characterized by excessive … + READ MORE
    Hepatic fibrosis refers to the scarring of liver tissue, often resulting from chronic liver injury or inflammation. It is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, impairing liver function and potentially progressing to cirrhosis if left untreated. To improve the liver functions, Cordyceps militaris, a species of parasitic fungus known for its medicinal properties, is used in the form of extract. It has been traditionally used in Chinese medicine to boost energy, improve stamina, and support overall health. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of Cordyceps militaris extract powder in a liver injury model induced by hepatic fibrosis. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administered Dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) to induce liver injury, and the hepatoprotective effects of Cordyceps militaris extract powder intake were assessed by comparing changes in liver enzyme levels and histological observations. Rats injected with DMN were orally administered Cordyceps militaris extract powder at doses of 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg·kg-1·day-1 for three weeks. After three weeks of treatment, no significant differences were observed in hematological, clinical chemical, organ weight, gross examination, or microscopic examination between the DMN-alone group and the Cordyceps militaris extract powder-treated group. In conclusion, hepatoprotective effects against DMN-induced liver injury in SD rats treated with Cordyceps militaris extract powder were not observed under this study condition. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2024
  • Food & Chemistry

    Hepatoprotective effect of cordycepin-enriched Cordyceps militaris extract powder on high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis in obese (ob/ob) mice
    Ju-Hye Kim, Heejin Park, Mun-Hyoung Bae, Youngha Seo, Eun-Young Gu, Taek-Keun Oh, Byoung-Seok Lee
    Herbal medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been traditionally used as tonic medicine for metabolic syndrome. Cordycepin, main extract of C. militaris, … + READ MORE
    Herbal medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been traditionally used as tonic medicine for metabolic syndrome. Cordycepin, main extract of C. militaris, has been reported with immunomodulatory, anticancer, and hepatoprotective effects. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective effect of cordycepin-enriched Cordyceps militaris, against high fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis (HS) in male obese (ob/ob) mice. HFD was provided to ob/ob mice ad libitum (except negative control). Cordycepin-enriched C. militaris extract powder (CM) was orally administered once daily at dose levels of 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg·kg-1 for 4 weeks. During the study, body weight gain was statistically increased in all HFD fed groups compared to negative control, but body weight gain in CM 500 mg·kg-1 treated group shows a low tendency compared to HS model group. In organ weights, absolute and relative weights (to body weight) in liver and perirenal adipose tissue were increased in all HFD treated groups except CM 500 mg·kg-1 treated group compared to the negative control. In clinical chemistry, serum glucose and total cholesterol levels in CM 250 and/or 500 mg·kg-1 treated groups were lower than HS model group. In microscopical examination, hepatocyte vacuolation with macrovesicles in HS model group was increased compared to negative control, but this finding was decreased in CM 500 mg·kg-1 treated group compared to HS model group. In this study, CM exhibited hepatoprotective effects against hepatic steatosis at mg·kg-1 in ob/ob mice. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2024
  • Food & Chemistry

    Effect of cordycepin-enriched Cordyceps militaris L. extract powder on alcohol degradation and hepatoprotection in mice alcohol model
    Ju-Hye Kim, Heejin Park, Mun-Hyoung Bae, Youngha Seo, Eun-Young Gu, Taek-Keun Oh, Byoung-Seok Lee
    Cordyceps militaris L. (C. militaris) has been traditionally used as tonic medicine for metabolic syndrome. Cordycepin, has been reported with … + READ MORE
    Cordyceps militaris L. (C. militaris) has been traditionally used as tonic medicine for metabolic syndrome. Cordycepin, has been reported with immunomodulatory, antitumor, and hepatoprotective effect, is the main extract from C. militaris. This study was conducted to evaluate the alcohol degradation and hepatoprotective effect of cordycepin-enriched C. militaris extract (CM) powder in chronic and binge ethanol (ethanol Lieber-DeCarli diet)-fed male C57BL/6 Mice. Cordycepin-enriched C. militaris extract powder was orally administered once daily at dose levels of 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 16 days. For evaluating alcohol degradation, ethanol concentration and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity were measured in serum. Serum ethanol (EtOH) concentration was decreased at CM treated groups, and the activities of ADH and ALDH were increased dose-dependently at CM treated groups compare to EtOH model group. In clinical chemistry, the values of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were lower in CM treated groups than those in EtOH model group. Additionally, absolute and relative (to body weight) liver weights were statistically decreased in the CM treated groups compared to the EtOH model group. In conclusion, our study showed that cordycepin-enriched C. militaris extract powder exhibits hepatoprotective effect by upregulating the ADH and ALDH enzyme in an alcoholic liver disease model. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2024
  • Animal

    The impact of substituting soybean meal with various plant byproducts on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and fecal scores of growing pigs
    Weihan Zhao, In Ho Kim
    Soybean meal (SBM) is a high-protein plant product commonly used as the primary protein source in pig diets. However, its price has … + READ MORE
    Soybean meal (SBM) is a high-protein plant product commonly used as the primary protein source in pig diets. However, its price has been steadily rising, prompting us to search for cost-effective, high-yield protein sources. This experiment aimed to assess the effects of partial replacing SBM with 6% of palm kernel meal (PKM), lupin kernel (LK), rapeseed meal (RSM), and distillers dried grains solubles (DDGS) on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and fecal scoring in growing pigs. A total of 200 (Yorkshire × Duroc) growing pigs with an initial weight of 34.83 ± 1.38 kilograms were utilized in this research for 29 days. All pigs were randomly assigned to one of five dietary treatments based on their gender and initial body weight, Each treatment consisted of 10 replicates with 2 barrows and 2 gilts per pen. The dietary treatments were as follows: control (CON), a corn-SBM-based diet; and basal diet supplemented with 6% of different plant byproducts (PKM, LK, RSM, and DDGS) Adding 6% of RSM to the basal diet showed slightly higher daily gain (2.520 > 2.513) and there was no difference observed on the nutrient digestibilty and fecal score. Replacing soybean meal with different plant byproducts has no adverse effect on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and fecal score. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2024
  • Animal

    Assessing the relationship between muscle-to-fat ratio in pork belly and Boston butt using magnetic resonance imaging
    Sheena Kim, Jeongin Choi, Eun Sol Kim, Gi Beom Keum, Hyunok Doo, Jinok Kwak, Sumin Ryu, Yejin Choi, Juyoun Kang, Haram Kim, Yeongjae Chae, Yujung Lee, Dongjun Kim, Kuk-Hwan Seol, Sun Moon Kang, Yunseok Kim, Pil Nam Seong, In-Seon Bae, Soohyun Cho, Hyo Jung Kwon, Samooel Jung, Youngwon Lee, Hyeun Bum Kim
    This research aimed to investigate the relationship between meat quality and muscle-to-fat ratio in specific cuts of pork (pork belly and Boston … + READ MORE
    This research aimed to investigate the relationship between meat quality and muscle-to-fat ratio in specific cuts of pork (pork belly and Boston butt) utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-eight pigs were selected, and 24 hours post-slaughter, pork belly and Boston butt samples were individually extracted from the left half carcass for MRI assessment. The MRI scans were reviewed using the Picture Archiving and Communications System. Muscle and fat volumes in the pork belly and Boston butt from the cross-sectional images captured by MRI were estimated using Vitrea workstation version 7. Subsequently, these data were processed using Vitrea post-processing software to automatically determine the volumes, measured in milliliters (mL). Additionally, a three-dimensional reconstruction of the organ being studied was generated. The relationship between regions (pork belly and Boston butt) was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and statistical analysis was conducted using GraphPad Prism 8. The muscle-to-fat ratio determined by MRI for pork belly was 1 : 0.64, whereas for Boston butt it was 1 : 0.35. Results of comparing the muscle-fat ratio, the correlation coefficient between pork belly and Boston butt was found to be 0.6127 (R2 = 0.3754, p < 0.001) based on MRI analysis. As a result of measuring the muscle-to-fat ratio using MRI as a non-destructive approach, there was a positive correlation between the muscle-to-fat ratios of pork belly and Boston butt. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2024
  • Animal

    Effect of dietary protein levels and age on growth performance, total excreta and nitrogen balance of laying hens during the growing phase
    Jeseok Lee, Myunghwan Yu, Elijah Ogola Oketch, Shan Randima Nawarathne, Yu Bin Kim, Nuwan Chamara Chathuranga, Venuste Maniraguha, Bernadette Gerpacio Sta. Cruz, Eunsoo Seo, Haeeun Park, Hyunji Choi, Dong Jo Yu, Jung-Kon Kim, Jung Min Heo
    This study examined the effect of a dietary protein level and age on growth performance, total excreta, and nitrogen balance in laying … + READ MORE
    This study examined the effect of a dietary protein level and age on growth performance, total excreta, and nitrogen balance in laying hen during the growing period for 18 weeks. A total of 96 Hy-Line Brown laying hens were divided into two treatments according to the experimental diets, with each group consisting of six replicates. The experimental diets included: 1) an adequate metabolizable energy and crude protein diet formulated to meet the age and breed specification for Hy-Line Brown containing 21, 18, 16, and 14% dietary CP during 0 to 6, 6 to 12, 12 to 15, 15 to 18 weeks, respectively (CON); 2) 2% CP deficiency from CON diet containing 19, 16, 14, 12% dietary CP during 0 to 6, 6 to 12, 12 to 15, 15 to 18 weeks, respectively (LP). Growth performance, total excreta, and nitrogen balance were investigated for 18 weeks every 3 weeks, and two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of data. The LP group had lower total excreta and N intake than CON group in the whole period of the experiment (p < 0.001). Moreover, birds in the LP group showed lower N excretion than the CON group (p < 0.05). However, the CON group exhibited higher BW, ADG than the LP group (p < 0.001). Application of low-protein diet to laying hens during the growing period reduced N excretion, which contribute to the sustainable development of the laying hen industry by minimizing environmental pollution. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2024
  • Food & Chemistry

    Residual characteristics and safety assessments of prochloraz and its metabolites in Aster yomena using QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS
    Hyeon-Jin Lim, Young-Shin Kim, Chi-Hwan Lim
    Although Aster yomena has recently attracted attention for its potential anti-cancer, antimicrobial, and immune-boosting effects, there are concerns about residual pesticides because … + READ MORE
    Although Aster yomena has recently attracted attention for its potential anti-cancer, antimicrobial, and immune-boosting effects, there are concerns about residual pesticides because they are consumed in salad-like forms. This study investigated residual characteristics and human dietary risks of the imidazole fungicide prochloraz applied to the herbal medicine Aster yomena with different spray frequency and timing. Residual analysis of prochloraz and its three main metabolites (BTS44595, BTS44596, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) in Aster yomena samples was performed using the QuEChERS method and LC-MS/MS. Mean recovery rates of the fungicide and its metabolites were satisfactory in the range of 80.1 ± 1.2% to 108.2 ± 3.8%. The residual concentration of the fungicide calculated as the sum of prochloraz and its metabolites was the highest (4.14 mg·kg-1) in the Aster yomena sample applied three times at weekly intervals with the fungicide until immediately before harvest. The fungicide residue concentration in the Aster yomena was below the method-limit of quantification (MLOQ) when it was applied twice at the interval of 9 day until 21 days before harvest. The theoretical maximum daily intake of prochloraz, calculated based on the daily intake of Aster yomena, mean adult body weight, and the highest residue level analyzed in the this study, was safe at < 80% of the acceptable daily intake of the fungicide (0.01 mg-1·kg·bw-1·day). In conclusion, the triple application method with prochloraz at weekly intervals until the harvest day is recommended to produce safe Aster yomena from the fungicide residues and risks to humans. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2024
  • Engineering

    A survey on the application of ICTs in automated water level gauges for agricultural reservoirs
    Min-Gi Jeon, Jin-Taek Kim, Won-Ho Nam
    Timely and appropriate water supply to paddy fields is crucial for efficient agricultural water management. In South Korea, 17,240 agricultural reservoirs supply … + READ MORE
    Timely and appropriate water supply to paddy fields is crucial for efficient agricultural water management. In South Korea, 17,240 agricultural reservoirs supply approximately 60% of the agricultural water and play a pivotal role in irrigation and drought mitigation. These reservoirs are managed by the Korea Rural Community Corporation (KRC), which oversees 3,411 reservoirs, and various local governments, which manage 13,829 locations. Guidelines from the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) mandate the installation and operation of water level measurement instruments. Currently, automated water level facilities are installed in 1,734 reservoirs and 1,880 irrigation canals, generating water level data at ten-minute intervals. In this study, a survey was conducted to enhance the management of agricultural reservoirs by integrating advanced information and communications technology (ICT) into existing automated water level gauge systems. We propose directions for enhancing the automated water level gauges in agricultural reservoirs. The findings would provide foundational data for stable and systematic management of these gauges. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2024
  • Food & Chemistry

    Influences of silicate fertilizers containing different rates of iron slag on CH4 emission and rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth
    Ji-Hoon Kim, Yun-Gu Kang, Jun-Yeong Lee, Jun-Ho Kim, Ji-Won Choi, Taek-Keun Oh
    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, with a short-term greenhouse effect 80-fold that of carbon dioxide. Blast furnace slag … + READ MORE
    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, with a short-term greenhouse effect 80-fold that of carbon dioxide. Blast furnace slag used as a base ingredient for silicate fertilizer, and contained Fe3+, which acts as reduction of CH4 emissions in flooded rice paddy. This study was evaluated the effects of the silicate fertilizer with different rates of the iron slag on CH4 emissions and rice growth. In this study, the SF 0.0% was applied with silicate fertilizer containing 0.0% of the iron slag, while the SF 2.5% and SF 5.0% were treated with silicate fertilizer containing 2.5 and 5.0%, respectively. The CH4 emissions during rice cropping period were assessed using a closed-chamber method and then determined by Gas chromatography. The CH4 fluxes were reduced by 17% (SF 0.0%), 17% (SF 2.5%), and 8% (SF 5.0%) compared to the treatment with only-inorganic fertilization (control). Conversely, rice grain yield increased by 15 - 30% compared to the control owing to the improvement of soil quality by silicate fertilization. In particular, soil pH, available phosphorus and available silicic acid content were increased with the increase in the iron slag rates from 0.0 to 5.0%. These contributed to a significant increase in rice growth such as 1,000-grains weight and percentage of filled grains. Consequently, these findings were indicated that the application of silicate fertilizer containing 2.5 - 5.0% of iron slag would be the most effective in both CH4 reduction and rice growth. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2024
  • Plant & Forest

    Comparative nutritional analysis for protopanaxadiol-enhanced genetically modified rice and its non-transgenic counterpart
    Na Yeon Kim, Sung Dug Oh, Soo Yun Park, An Cheol Chang, Seong Kon Lee, Ye Jin Jang, So-Hyeon Baek, Yong Eui Choi, Jong-Chan Park, Doh Won Yun
    In the assessment of the biosafety of genetically modified (GM) crops, a comparative approach to identifying similarities and differences between transgenic and … + READ MORE
    In the assessment of the biosafety of genetically modified (GM) crops, a comparative approach to identifying similarities and differences between transgenic and non-transgenic crops is helpful in identifying potential safety and nutritional issues. In this study, we aimed to compare the nutritional composition of a protopanaxadiol-enhanced genetically modified rice (PPD GM rice) with its non-transgenic counterpart. The nutritional profile of PPD GM rice was assessed against that of the parental rice cultivar ‘Dongjin’ to ascertain nutritional equivalence. No differences were observed between PPD GM and Non-GM rice cultivar in proximate analysis, mineral content, and amino acid composition. Although significant differences were observed in crude fat, crude protein, total dietary fiber, and some minerals between PPD GM rice and Dongjin, these variances fell within the range suggested by common cultivars (Anmi and Nipponbare) and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data. Similarly, while some amino acids showed significant differences, these metabolites did not deviate from the OECD range. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted using the nutritional analysis data of PPD GM rice and Dongjin. The results revealed that PPD GM rice and Dongjin were grouped according to their respective cultivation years. This suggests that the variability in the nutritional composition of PPD GM rice tends to resemble that of the parental rice cultivar ‘Dongjin’ rather than being solely attributed to genetic modification. Overall, our findings indicate that the nutritional composition of PPD GM rice is substantially equivalent to that of its non-transgenic counterpart. - COLLAPSE
    1 June 2024